Saturday 28th of November 2020
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Who Are The Gnostics?

Contrary to popular opinion the Western Church never wiped out the Gnostics at all; they simply went underground and then morphed and re-emerged within a host of new sects and denominations. Whether you will judge these things good or bad let’s at least agree on what history proves and what still exists today.

There are many misconceptions about what Gnosticism is and the people who subscribe to it. A widely believed fallacy is that the Gnostics were, or are, a “Christian” sect. No, not at all, Gnosticism was deeply entrenched within esoteric Judaism long before Christianity came on the scene and is very evident in Kabalistic communities today. However, it is true that after Y’shua’s resurrection the Gnostics reinvented themselves and attached themselves to the historical stream of diverse opinions regarding Mashiyach. And the fact is, the apostles knew who these Gnostics were and rebuked them by name in Scripture, as we will see shortly.

But who exactly were these people? Their name gives us a huge clue, it being derived from the Greek word for “knowing” (gnosis). Some have suggested that they are simply “mystics” but that is much too broad a term to be useful and precise. The fact is, there are legitimate mystical trends in Scripture that have nothing to do with Gnosticism at all, so the question remains, which kind of mystic were or are they?

The Heresy Emerges

To understand who the Gnostics were and are today let’s take a look inside, The Ryrie Study Bible, which is an NASB Greek to English translation of the NT done with extra commentary by Dr. Charles Ryrie of the Moody Bible Institute. Though I have stark theological disagreements with Dr. Ryrie, I very much appreciate his methodology for two reasons: 1) Dr. Ryrie puts in his introduction clear and consistent translation principles that he follows nearly all the time, and when he diverges from those principles he explains why. 2) Ryrie tries to be fair and balanced in the history he relates and not become a mere apologist for his sect of Christianity.

For now let’s focus on this latter aspect of Ryrie’s approach. When translating a part of Titus, Ryrie had the courage to not just take an anti-Torah or anti-Jewish jab, which would have been the easy and a popular thing for him to do. Here is what I mean:

For there are many rebellious men, empty talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, who must be silenced because they are upsetting whole families teaching things they should not teach, for the sake of sordid gain. One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, “Cretians are always liars, evil beasts and lazy gluttons.” This testimony is true. For this cause, reprove them severely that they may be sound in the faith, and not paying attention to Jewish myths and commandments of men who turn away from the truth.

Titus 1:10-14 (NASB)

Here was the “golden opportunity” to talk about Torah (maybe even Oral Law, or Talmud) passing away, and pay some lip service to the righteous prophets of that time “before Christ” as Ryrie would have put it. But no, he resists that temptation, one that precious few scholars couldn’t and instead he says the following:

Jewish myths. Speculations, of a Gnostic sort, supposedly based on O.T. scripture. For Gnosticism, see the Introduction to 1 John.

Fair enough Dr. Ryrie, let’s have a look:

The heresy of Gnosticism had begun to make inroads among the churches in John’s day. Among its teachings were:

1) knowledge is superior to virtue;

2) the non-literal sense of Scripture is correct and can be understood only by a select few;

3) evil in the world precludes God being the only creator;

4) the incarnation is incredible because deity cannot unite itself with anything material such as a body (Docetism); and 5) there is no resurrection of the flesh. The ethical standards of many Gnostics were low, so John emphasized the reality of the incarnation and the high ethical standard of the earthly life of Christ. The Ryrie Study Bible, p. 440.

Now with such historical background in place, we see that the “Cretians” referred to in Titus are in fact the Gnostics. As Ryrie explains in another footnote (for Titus 1:13), “Cretianize” because a synonym for lying, and we also see that Rav Shaul (the apostle Paul) affirms the Gnostics origins within Judaism (of the circumcision).

But there is another place in the NT where the Gnostics are literally called out by their very title:

Gnostic Heresy Scriptural Rebuke
Knowledge is superior to virtue. For Mashiyach did not send me to immerse, but to preach; not with wisdom of words, or else the stake of Mashiyach should be inefficient. For the word concerning the stake is, to them who perish, foolishness; but to us who live, it is the energy of Elohim. For it is written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise; and I will dissipate the intelligence of the sagacious.” Where is the wise sage? Or where is the scribe? Or where is the disputant of this world? Behold, has not Elohim showed that the wisdom of this world is folly?…Because the foolishness of Elohim is wiser than

men; and the weakness of Elohim is stronger than the sons of men.-1 Corinthians 1:17-20,25 (AENT)

The non-literal sense of Scripture is correct and can be understood only by a select few.

And by this we know that we love the children of Elohim, when we love Elohim and follow his Commandments. For this is the love of Elohim, that we keep his Commandments: and his Commandments are not burdensome.- 1 John 5:2-3 (AENT)

Evil in the world precludes YHWH’s being the only creator. And Y’shua said to him, “The first of all the Commandments is ‘Hear O Israel. Master YHWH our Elohim is one. And you should love Master YHWH your Elohim with all of your heart, and with all of your soul, and with all of your mind, and with all of your strength.’ This is the first Commandment.- Mark 12:29-30 (AENT)

The incarnation is incredible because deity cannot unite itself with anything material such as a body (Docetism). In the beginningwas the Miltha.And that Miltha was with Elohim. And Elohim was that Miltha. This was with Elohim in the beginning. Everything existed through His hands, and without Him, not even one thing existed of the things which have existed. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And that light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not overtake it…And the Milthabecame flesh and dwelt among us and we saw His glory,the glory as the Only-Begotten who is from the Father who is full of grace and truth.-John 1:1-4,14 (AENT)

There is no resurrection of the flesh. And we too are found false witnesses of Elohim; for we have testified concerning Elohim, that he raised up the Mashiyach, when He did not raise him up. For, if the dead will not arise, the Mashiyach also has not risen. And if the Mashiyach rose not, your faith is worthless; and you are still in your sins!-1 Corinthians 15:15-17 (AENT)

And that is why the Scripture says:

For many are stiff necked and their discourses vain; and they mislead the minds of people, especially such as are of the circumcision. The mouth of these should be stopped: they corrupt many families; and they teach what they should not, for the sake of sordid profits. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, “The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, idle bellies.” And this testimony is true. Therefore rebuke them sharply that they may be sound in the faith and may not throw themselves into Jewish fables and into the precepts of men who hate the Truth. For to the pure, everything is pure; but to them who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure; but their understanding is defiled, and their conscience. And they profess that they know Elohim, but in their works they deny him; and they are odious and disobedient and to every good work reprobates-Titus 1:10-16 (AENT)

I extended the Titus quote to include the actual rebuke against the Gnostics by name: The say they know Elohim, but in their works they deny Him! The definitions here and elsewhere, as we have seen, fit the heretical pattern of the Gnostics directly, point for point!

Where are the Gnostics now?

Perhaps some of the heretical attributes we have just witnessed resonate with you, maybe you’ve met such individuals throughout your faith walk? In terms of a coherent and consistent spiritual methodology within Gnosticism as a whole, those forms of belief are deeply entrenched within the Judeo-Christian world today. It comes in the form of people who think that saying a certain prayer a certain way will invoke special spiritual power. Or just by saying the Name of Jesus, or Yahuweh or Yahushua in a certain way carries power. Or in the guise of some “correct theology” becoming a substitute for the proactive faith-walk according to righteousness and YHWH’s Torah.

It has long been my observation that some of the highest exposure to Gnosticism is found by attending churches and synagogues where a majority of people differentiate their faith according to a “theology” alone. Theology is “the study of Theos (God)”, a just and holy thing, but, when a persons identity in Mashiyach is differentiated solely by their knowledge about Him, they are putting themselves in line with Gnostic ideology.

When attributes of the Father such as Love, Mercy and Compassion are sidelined in favor of being in “fellowship” with those of a similar “purified theology”, your spiritual antennae should be going up FAST!

Have you ever felt pressured by someone to “speak in tongues” in order to have the “baptism of the Holy Ghost” to be saved? Many Charismatic people use speaking in tongues as an absolute spiritual methodology for salvation. So it’s no longer salvation by trusting in Y’shua, and surrendering your life to him, and keeping YHWH’s Commandments, but by the performance of speaking in tongues. Multitudes have learned a “prayer language” that they believe is evidence of the Holy Ghost operating within them. Their common identity is based on their experience of knowing how to speak in tongues and they measure the spirituality of others who don’t speak in tongues by being less spiritual or enlightened than themselves.

However “speaking in tongues” existed long before Christianity, in temples to Zeus and to Greek and Babylonian deities. Speaking in tongues was done in conjunction with phallic worship and temple prostitution. The earliest recorded tongue speaking Christian sect were the Montanists (the Cataphrygian Heresy) founded by Montanus who formerly followed a pagan mother goddess of fertility named Cybele where he learned pagan rites that he adapted into Christianity. Montanus would fall into a trance and prophesy under the influence of the “Holy Ghost,” insisting that his utterances were the voice of the “Holy Ghost.” Modern day “tongue-speaking” Pentecostal or Charismatic denominations have identical experiences to those of Montanus and the pagan rites of the Greeks and Babylonians.

The belief that speaking in tongues is evidence of God, is powerfully entrenched within the Charismatic movement and it operates much like Catholic prayer beads does for Catholics. A Charismatic Christian believes he or she can turn the Holy Spirit tongue on and off at will, they control the Holy Spirit and can direct the Holy Spirit in which ever way they feel. Many people study Cabbalism to get power and they feel they have a similar ability to tell the Holy Spirit what to do. Certainly Charismatic Christians and Cabbalists have very different doctrinal ideas, but in their spiritual methodology they share a Gnostic, knowledge and/or spiritual experience based identity.

Trusting in knowledge, or conjuring up a repetitive religious spiritual methodology is Gnosticism, as opposed to a Faith based lifestyle of obedience that is focused on YHWH and being a kedoshim (Set-Apart people). There is only One Saviour, who can save and Redeem, a religion or a religious experience about him is a far different thing than being transformed by him. We are to put our trust in YHWH through His son Y’shua, not to put our trust in our knowledge about him.

Sadly, most Pentecostals and Charismatics are ignorant of the fact that YHWH gave Torah on the day of Pentecost and that speaking in tongues was a gift that was to let the Word of YHWH go out to the nations, so others could hear the Good News in their mother tongue. Nowadays, the “gift of tongues” operates within congregations who all speak the same language and it has become a false security that the Spirit of God is operating within their churche. When a born-again, tongue speaking Christian, or any person, turns their ear away from hearing Torah, the Word of YHWH says that even their prayer is an abomination to Him (Proverbs 28:9). Without righteous living tongue speaking is simply white noise to the Almighty, a religious show. If a tongue speaking person cannot turn from carnal living and delight in having Torah written upon their hearts, it is because they’ve invited an unclean spirit to dwell in their soul that blocks their need for spiritual growth and teshuva (turning to YHWH).

Gnosticism plays a major role within the Church today, many souls put a significant amount of trust in their own doctrinal belief systems about Y’shua and the Holy Spirit, rather than trusting in YHWH and His Mashiyach by living according to His Word which is Torah. There are plenty Christians who speak in prayer languages while committing all manner of transgression against YHWH and His Mashiyach, and are offended by those who seek to live righteous lives. Our identity according to Scripture is to be a kedoshim (Set-Apart Holy people) with circumcised hearts that emulate the lifestyle Y’shua lived. Regrettably, many Christians look to reformers like Luther, or Calvin, or revivals like Azusa street in 1906, or the Toronto Airport for their religious identities. The Charismatic revivals were characterized by ecstatic spiritual experiences accompanied by speaking in tongues and dramatic and emotional worship services. When the participants of these movements received criticism from other caring and concerned Christians, they often take the high road and condemn others as not being so spiritual and enlightened, pride is a by-product of Gnosticism.

Perhaps you’ve met someone who pressured you to speak the Name of YHWH, or keep Shabbat, the Feasts, or not eat pig or wear tzit tzit, as though your salvation depends on it? Ever met someone who insisted that you speak and pray in the Name of Yahuweh or Yahshua to be saved? These kinds of Christian and ex-Christian people might also be bringing Gnostic spiritual methodology from their churches into the Hebraic Roots movement. Gnosticism has turned Torah into a theology about YHWH, rather than an intimate and righteous relationship with Him in Mashiyach. Torah is not a religious formula but a door of entrance into the Kingdom. Torah was not given by YHWH to be observed by a religious rote duty, or as a charm to bring good things to us.

Torah is the Word of YHWH that was made flesh in Y’shua. We are called to “put on Mashiyach”, to be transformed into the “Image of Elohim”, to put on and become a spiritual person so that we do not walk in the lusts of our flesh. If someone says that I “must observe Torah” I tell them I delight in Torah, not as a religious obligation, but as a way of life. If someone says that I must tie teffilin or daven (pray) like they do, I tell them that for me prayer is NOT a good luck charm! For many Jews and Christians the words of their prayers are simply thought of as a good luck charm, pray so good things will come, that is Gnosticism, if there is no relationship with the Father then a person only has formula to get things for themselves.

Perhaps you’ve heard of: The Prayer of Jabez: Breaking Through to the Blessed Life. Published in 2000 by Bruce Wilkinson as the first book in the “BreakThrough” book series, this book was based on a prayer from 1 Chronicles 4:9-10:

Jabez called on the God of Israel, saying, Oh that you would bless me indeed, and enlarge my border, and that your hand might be with me, and that you would keep me from evil, that it not be to my sorrow! God granted him that which he requested. ( 1 Chronicles 4:9-10 WEB)

In his book, Wilkinson encourages Christians to invoke this prayer and he states:

I challenge you to make the Jabez prayer for blessing part of the daily fabric of your life. To do that, I encourage you to follow unwaveringly the plan outlined here for the next thirty days. By the end of that time, you’ll be noticing significant changes in your life, and the prayer will be on its way to becoming a treasured, lifelong habit.

The book became an international bestseller, topping the New York Times bestseller list and selling nine million copies. It received the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association Gold Medallion Book of the Year award in 2001. This is Gnosticism, it touts a prayer formula, like rubbing a prayer charm that will bring “significant changes in your life.” No, Mr. Wilkinson, it’s YHWH the Father who brings beautiful changes into our life through His Mashiyach, not a canned prayer that we say by rote for the next thirty days! Many Christians became offended when others refuse to say prayers by rote, refuse to follow traditional religious practices that are like Catholicism or Rabbinical Judaism. Y’shua came to lead us to the Father, it was Rabbinical Judaism that had insulated Israelites from having a personal relationship with YHWH. Catholicism also insulated people from being obedient to YHWH and it offers religious traditions and substitutes that are based on paganism.

Mr. Wilkinson’s book came out in 2000 to became a huge best seller. Did YHWH hear the prayers of all those American Christians who started saying the “prayer of Jabez”? No, I hardly think so. Eight years later, in 2008, those enlarged borders were going bankrupt in record numbers and the financial damage and carnage is far from over. What we know about Jabez is that he was head of a Calebite family and his name (Ya’bets in Hebrew) was given because his mother bore him in sorrow. The impression is that this man came from a life of poverty and suffering, not a wealthy man, not a man of means by no means. People in the West are ignorant of how many people in Israel lived in those days and today. As I write this I’m sitting in a apartment in Mea Sherim, Jerusalem Israel ( within 100 meters of me are 5 small synagogues that are the core of this community. For many here, to enlarge their border would mean to have three meals a day, that would be a miracle, to afford an air-conditioner during scorching summer months would be a luxury. But even those who who suffer with poverty day after day, in this haredi Jewish neighborhood, they know well how to guard the simchas (joy) of Shabbat. You can hear the singing and table pounding echoing through the old stone streets every Shabbat. If you put that prayer of Jabez in the context of this place you’ll have a very different sense than one gets sitting in a nice pad in America.

Faith requires that we become new creations on the inside with new circumcised hearts. Faith is a relationship with the Father, not a religion about Him, and certainly not based on a set of prayers that we say to get stuff from Him. That sort of religion is a dark and pathetic way of treating our loving Heavenly Father who sent his son to shed his blood so that we could have a relationship with Him.

Our faith then is not about gnosis (knowing) YHWH from an intellectual or religious perspective, but about being obedient and serving Him and conforming our lifestyle to the pattern Mashiyach established for us and it’s about YHWH knowing us.

Y’shua celebrated Shabbat, but he didn’t do it according to the rote religious requirements of the Pharisees, if he did, you and I would have been looking for another Mashiyach a long time ago. No, Mashiyach teaches us is that LOVE triumphs over the letter of “the law” which is religion. Y’shua kept Torah. Y’shua is our example of Torah. Y’shua is the Torah Mashiyach. He is the Word Made Flesh. Torah is the inner charter of the Spirit of YHWH that guides our innermost lives. Paul said that Torah is Spiritual: “For we know that the Torah is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.” (Romans 7:14). We keep Shabbat and YHWH’s Feasts and we don’t eat pig because YHWH instructed us in these things, and we draw close to the Father by surrendering to His Word.

When we surrender to His WORD we are surrendering to HIM,because Y’shua is the Word made flesh.

Taste and see that He is good. Why not ask YHWH right now to root out all Gnostic religious ideas out of your life? Why should any of us assume we haven’t been bitten into the apple1 of Gnosticism? Why should we assume that we’re better off than anyone else? Why shouldn’t we go to the Father and have Him reveal how He wants us to live? Why do we need the approval of others in order to do this, why should be try to make other people (in our family, church or synagogue) happy by how we serve YHWH like everyone else?

Another example of Gnostic based ideal is to have a good luck charm, or an angel or a picture or something hanging off a necklace that brings you “good luck.” The belief in such things is a spiritual methodology that is based on Gnosticism, and YHWH forbid images of spiritual things for this very reason so that our worship of Him would not be intercepted.

Have you also heard Christians say… “that’s too complicated I just follow the ‘simple’ gospel”, “I just love the Lord.” And just how do they love the Lord? Oftentimes the conversation reverts to a set of man-made religious denominational ideals that a person feels comfortable with, and they don’t want to complicate their lives by considering a reformation of their religious lifestyle into a Faith based within Torah and Mashiyach. Why? Because people will condemn them for being different, they will lose their friends.

The reasons why Gnosticism is so common within religious circles are complex, but the bottom line is there are in our midst many who have been greatly influenced—in some cases unknowingly—by Gnostic ideology. In reality each of us have to deal with it every day, it has shaped Western civilization from within both ancient Jewish and Greek cultures. Many Christians and ex-Christians have felt a yearning to leave their churches and search for a better way, but in so doing these souls are often exploited by a new set of religious people, with questionable doctrines, that are also incomplete and incompatible with the Faith Once Delivered.

But, lest anyone believe that we Nazarenes and Messianic Jews are immune from these tendencies I will say it very definitely: Nothing could be further from the truth!

There are those among us who call themselves “Hebraic Roots believers” who espouse core frauds such as “the greater and lesser YHWH” as if YHWH Himself could be anything other than Infinite and Great! Others lean on abstract “knowledge” that they say excuse them from actually keeping His literal and plain spoken Commandments. Still others deny the divinity of Mashiyach saying, as the Gnostics did almost verbatim, YHWH cannot unite with flesh. While others, going to the other extreme, will assert that Y’shua wasn’t really human at all, but somehow Father YHWH in disguise. All these things are the doctrines of demons, because anything that does not acknowledge YHWH as sole Creator bows down to demons according the apostle Paul (1 Corinthians 10:20-21)!

But that doesn’t mean all “knowledge” is bad of course. It just has to be the right knowledge given by YHWH. That is why in Isaiah 1:18 YHWH says, “Come let us reason together” because if we rely on Him and seek His higher thoughts and ways, we will avoid the kind of worldly and human-based wisdom that leads to death and destruction. And that last reason may be why we have this key insight as well:

But Elohim has chosen the foolish ones of the world to shame the wise; and He has chosen the weak ones of the world to shame the mighty; and He has chosen those of humble birth in the world, and the despised, and them who are nothing, to bring to nothing them who are something: So that no flesh might glory before him.. And you, moreover, are of him in Y’shua Mashiyach; who has become to us wisdom from Elohim, and righteousness and separateness, and salvation: According to that which is written: “He that glorifies in himself, let him glory in our Master (Y’shua).”-1 Corinthians 1:17-31 (AENT)

In conclusion, please consider again what Dr. Ryrie had to say about Gnosticism.

The heresy of Gnosticism had begun to make inroads among the churches in John’s day. Among its teachings were:

1) knowledge is superior to virtue;

Ever met people who think they are on an inside track with Y’shua (or Jesus) and who act as though they are superior to you, yet their lives demonstrate major dysfunctions and long term inconsistencies?

2) the non-literal sense of Scripture is correct and can be understood only by a select few;

Ever point out Scripture about righteous living to someone and they argue against the plain reading of Scripture and make up fanciful theological reasons for why they don’t have to keep Shabbat, or dress modestly, or curb their gossip?

3) evil in the world precludes God being the only creator;

Ever try to explain to someone that dualism is paganism, that YHWH animates the Devil and gives haSatan life and existence? That dualism is the basis of idolatry, good versus evil, wars between gods and titans? But that the Faith of Mashiyach is Monotheism, YHWH is Echad. That is why Jews say the Shema thrice daily because both good and evil is controlled by One Master, Who is On All Powerful Creator.

4) the incarnation is incredible because deity cannot unite itself with anything material such as a body (Docetism); and

Every try to explain to someone that YHWH can do whatever He wants, when He wants, why He wants, and their systematic theology isn’t going to prevent YHWH from doing things that humans can barely understand?

5) there is no resurrection of the flesh. The ethical standards of many Gnostics were low indeed.

Every try to explain to someone that it isn’t a theology about Mashiyach that will save us, but that we have our names written in His Book of Life? That we live a life that is pleasing and honoring to the Father. If we trust in YHWH we will have the confidence to live a Torah observant life regardless of how many people condemn or scorn us for doing so.

Our calling brothers and sisters is to overcome evil with good. To love YHWH and love our neighbour. When religion gets in the way of simple brotherly love and care for our fellow human beings we must know that something is very, very wrong. Religion has become the worst of evils because it uses the Bible to bring accusation and condemnation to other human beings, when carnal Christians or Jews demand a performance of you, RUN as fast as you can!

For YHWH did not his Son into the world to bring condemnation;but that the world through him might be saved.John 3:17

YHWH brought the Israelites out of Egypt and gave them Torah which is the charter of freedom and the Government of Mashiyach. Torah is Freedom! However, the very deeply embedded spiritual methodology of Gnosticism says that Torah is bondage or that Torah has been reformed by religion. So who are you putting your trust in today? The religions of men or the Faith Which was Once Delivered to the Righteous? Ever wonder why there is so much religious division everywhere? Gnosticism is not a theology, it is a methodology that puts up walls between YHWH and His people and between people. If you are seeking intimacy with the Father and true power from the Master for a dynamic, joyful and spiritual life in Mashiyach then go break down that wall in your life. Do whatever you can to extricate yourself from the ideas of men’s religion and seek the Father with a pure and contrite heart and ask Him to write His Torah upon your heart (Jeremiah 31:31-36).

And then we we’ve become free, let’s continue that Great Commission our Saviour called us to in Matt 28:20:

Teaching them to shema (guard, observe and keep) all things whatsoever I have commanded you:and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world.Amen.

YHWH be with you,

Shalom U’Vrachot,

Baruch Ben Daniel

1 Ever wonder where popular Christian tradition got the idea that the apple was the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil? It was because Renaissance painters integrated Greek mythology into biblical scenes. The unnamed fruit of Eden became an apple under the influence of the golden apples in the Garden of the Greek deity Hesperides. As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. In Latin, the words for “apple” and for “evil” are similar in the singular (malus—apple, malum—evil) and identical in the plural (mala). This may also have influenced the apple becoming interpreted as the biblical “forbidden fruit”. The larynx in the human throat has been called Adam’s apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit sticking in the throat of Adam. The apple in Greek lore was also a symbol of sexual seduction that was also used to imply homosexuality. However, Scripture tells us that Adam and Eve sewed fig leaves together after they discovered their nakedness, throughout the Bible we see the fig being used as a symbol of judgment of good and evil. Y’shua cursed the fig tree as he rode up to Jerusalem, shortly thereafter the Sanhedrin plotted his death. In the parable of the fig tree in Luke 21:29 Y’shua said that when we see the fig tree begin to put forth it’s shoots we would know that the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand, this means that we will judgment coming upon this earth we will know that Mashiyach is on the way.

Behold how good and how blessed is for brothers to dwell together.

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